array_merge in PHP
PHP has several ways of combining two arrays into one. You can use
array_merge or the
There's a subtle difference between these two methods though, a difference worth knowing.
Let's take a look at how these two methods compare:
array_merge($first, $second); // vs. $first + $second;
Let's say these are the two arrays we're working with:
$first = [ 'a', 'b', ]; $second = [ 'c', ];
This would be the result of a simple
array_merge($first, $second); [ 'a', 'b', 'c', ]
+ operator gives us this result:
$first + $second; [ 'a', 'b', ]
Switching the operands while using the
+ operator, gives a different result:
$second + $first; [ 'c', 'b', ]
Confused? So was I.
Let's write out the
$second arrays in full, with their indices.
This will make things more clear:
$first = [ 0 => 'a', 1 => 'b', ]; $second = [ 0 => 'c', ];
By now you can probably guess what's going on:
+ operator will only add the elements of the rightside operand, if their key
doesn't exist in the leftside operand, while
array_merge will override existing keys.
By that definition, we can also determine that
+ can never be used to recursively merge arrays,
as it will leave existing elements untouched:
$first = [ 'A' => [ 'B' => true, 'C' => true, ], ]; $second = [ 'A' => [ 'B' => false, 'C' => false, ], ]; $first + $second;
Here's the result:
[ 'A' => [ 'B' => true, 'C' => true, ], ]
array_merge, would give this result:
[ 'A' => [ 'B' => false, 'C' => false, ], ]
"Hang on", I hear you say, "isn't that what
array_merge_recursive is supposed to do?".
Here we have a case of unfortunate naming. Please don't be surprised — it's PHP after all.
array_merge will merge matching elements by overriding them.
array_merge_recursive on the other hand will keep both elements, and merge them in a new array, keeping both values.
This is what our previous example would look like, using
[ 'A' => [ 'B' => [ true, false, ], 'C' => [ true, false, ], ], ]
What about merging multiple arrays? You can probably guess the outcome by now:
$first = ['a']; $second = ['b']; $third = ['c'];
array_merge results in:
array_merge($first, $second, $third)
[ 'a', 'b', 'c', ]
+ operator also works, with the following result:
$first + $second + $third
[ 'a', ]
With this little refresher, I hope that you won't find yourself confused anymore when you're deep into your code and need to merge arrays.
I found it to be a cognitive burden when I had to stop and think about "hang on, what is the correct way to do this?". Luckily now, we know!